Critical events that took place prior to the study of the bystander effect are discussed. After the turn of the century, psychologists began to study the applicability of the bystander effect to social issues, which has been demonstrated in more recent studies on prosocial behaviors in an online chat setting and in a study pertaining to cyber bullying. Before the establishment of this organization in , the field of psychology was not involved in studying and applying psychological principles and research to social issues Benjamin, That is, most psychologists at the time did not believe that the field of psychology could be engaged in the attempt to solve social problems and still remain a scientific discipline. However, during the time of the Great Depression, the zeitgeist began to change as more people began to think that psychology could be applied to resolving the social conflict in America and abroad Benjamin, Indeed, since the establishment of the SPSSI, psychologists have been focused on applying the science of psychology to better understand and solve social problems by looking at group dynamics Benjamin,
Henrietta Lacks was born in in Roanoke, Virginia. Lacks died of cervical cancer in Cells taken from her body without her knowledge were used to form the HeLa cell line, which has been used extensively in medical research since that time. Lacks’s case has sparked legal and ethical debates over the rights of an individual to his or her genetic material and tissue.
So the dating site eHarmony regularly analyzes its data to see what qualities appear to make people more “attractive,” which here means said.
Code of Hammurabi , the most complete and perfect extant collection of Babylonian laws, developed during the reign of Hammurabi — bce of the 1st dynasty of Babylon. These case laws include economic provisions prices, tariffs, trade, and commerce , family law marriage and divorce , as well as criminal law assault, theft and civil law slavery, debt.
Penalties varied according to the status of the offenders and the circumstances of the offenses. The background of the code is a body of Sumerian law under which civilized communities had lived for many centuries. The existing text is in the Akkadian Semitic language, but, even though no Sumerian version is known to survive, the code was meant to be applied to a wider realm than any single country and to integrate Semitic and Sumerian traditions and peoples. Moreover, despite a few primitive survivals relating to family solidarity, district responsibility, trial by ordeal , and the lex talionis i.
The principal and only considerable source of the Code of Hammurabi is the stela discovered at Susa in by the French Orientalist Jean-Vincent Scheil and now preserved in the Louvre. Code of Hammurabi. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica’s editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History.
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Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing are three different ways of incorporating another writer’s work into your own writing. Each differs according to the closeness of your writing to the source writing. Good writing takes time. This means that students need to set time aside to brainstorm, pre write, plan, draft, and then revise, revise, and revise. If students leave their essay to the last minute, they tend to become overwhelmed by the writing task and panic by looking for an alternative.
Ideologies are simple ideas, disguised as science or philosophy, that purport to and vice is the beginning of wisdom, something that can never be out of date.
Doudna first made her name uncovering the basic structure and function of the first ribozyme, a type of catalytic ribonucleic acid RNA that helps catalyse chemical reactions. This work helped lay the foundation for her later helping to pioneer CRISPR-Cas 9, a tool that has provided the means to edit genes on an unprecedented scale and at minimal cost. When she was seven years old she moved with her parents to Hilo, a small non-touristy town on the largest island of Hawaii, where her father became a professor in English literature at the University of Hawaii and her mother taught history at a local community college.
Landing up in a place where most of the children were of Polynesian and Asian descent and came from a blue-collar background, Doudna always felt slightly out of place with her fair hair, blue eyes and academic parents. She often retreated into books or exploring the rugged volcanic landscape, beaches and lush vegetation of the island. Kahn, Pollack Growing up surrounded by the natural beauty and ecological diversity of Hawaii, Doudna quickly acquired an appreciation for nature and became fascinated with science.
Marino One summer they arranged for her to some spend time with Don Hermes, a biologist and family friend at the University of Hawaii. He set her the task with two other students to investigate how one particular fungus, Phytophthora palmivora, infected papyrus. While the project only last a few weeks, they managed to determine that calcium ions played an important role in the development of the fungus. During her time with Hermes, Doudna also learnt how to embed fungus in resin and shave off sections for examining under an electron microscope.
Doudna retains many fond memories of that summer. This was inspired by two particular events. The first one was reading James Watson personal account of his discovery of the double helix of DNA in his book, which her father left on her bed one rainy afternoon.
It’s , and on the surface, it all seems to be an idyllic society. Living in a city within an enclosed dome, there is little or no work for humans to perform, and inhabitants are free to pursue all of the pleasures of life. There is one catch however: your life is limited and when you reach thirty, it is terminated in a quasi-religious ceremony known as “carrousel”. Some, known as “runners”, try to escape their fate when the time comes, and it’s the job of Sandmen to track them down and kill them.
Efforts to label the human epoch have ignited a scientific debate between But don’t get bogged down in the mud, they say, just stipulate a date and move on.
Was there such a thing as the ‘Scientific Revolution’ — and if the question makes sense, what is it, or what was it? Better still, what do historians mean when they speak of the ‘Scientific Revolution’? What follows is a modest attempt to clarify basic issues and suggest others that are less obvious. As an introduction to the concept of the Scientific Revolution, the following narrative provides examples that make the story increasingly complex, arguably, it may seem to undermine the very notion of a Scientific Revolution.
In any case, this short essay should be viewed as but one example of how historians more generally think about history. Which is to say, the Scientific Revolution provides an excellent exercise for thinking about how historical periodizations emerge, develop, and mature. Arguably, periodizations serve as paradigms, for students and scholars alike. They also serve as a forum for debate. Good periodizations foster debate, and the best among them grow more richly problematic, they promote ever more focused research and ever more imaginative and satisfying interpretations of past events.
All students of history confront these kinds of issues.
Code of Hammurabi
He is the cofounder of OkCupid, and was head of the dating site conglomerate the Match Group for seven years. His first company was.
Looking for Alibrandi is the story of Josephine Alibrandi, a young Italian Australian teenager in her last year of high school. When the book opens, Josie, vice captain of St. After school, Josie is supposed to go to the house of Nonna Katia , her overbearing grandmother, but decides to go straight home. His name is Michael Andretti , and he abandoned Christina when he found out she was pregnant at age Josie remembers him as a boy who relentlessly pulled pranks on her when they were growing up, and so she ignores him at first.
But then Jacob gives a passionate speech, and she develops a little crush on him. Just as Josie is about to storm out and leave, in walks Michael Andretti. He and Josie have a stare-down, and Josie reveals that her mother, Christina, had her 17 years ago. This makes Michael realize who she really is to him, and he is shell-shocked. After dropping that bombshell, Josie leaves.
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The guardsman pressed forward to claim Miss Liebenheim’s hand for the next dance; a movement which she was quick to favor, by retreating behind one or two parties from a person who seemed coming toward her. The music again began to pour its voluptuous tides through the bounding pulses of the youthful company; again the flying feet of the dancers began to respond to the measures; again the mounting spirit of delight began to fill the sails of the hurrying night with steady inspiration.
All went happily. Already had one dance finished; some were pacing up and down, leaning on the arms of their partners; some were reposing from their exertions; when—O heavens! Growing up in the solitude of a remote farm house, transplanted to a tiny village where she lived with two elderly spinsters, she was still the veriest child in all but the practical duties and responsibilities of life; in those she had long been a woman.
it is a scientific necessity, because no other term covers all and only these laws. The Hittite Law Code, dating from about the 14th century bc, reflects the.
The most robust statistical examination to date of our species’ genetic links to “mitochondrial Eve” — the maternal ancestor of all living humans — confirms that she lived about , years ago. The Rice University study was based on a side-by-side comparison of 10 human genetic models that each aim to determine when Eve lived using a very different set of assumptions about the way humans migrated, expanded and spread across Earth. The quest to date mitochondrial Eve mtEve is an example of the way scientists probe the genetic past to learn more about mutation, selection and other genetic processes that play key roles in disease.
For example, the way scientists attempt to date mtEve relies on modern genetic techniques. Genetic profiles of random blood donors are compared, and based upon the likenesses and differences between particular genes, scientists can assign a number that describes the degree to which any two donors are related to one another. Using mitochondrial genomes to gauge relatedness is a way for geneticists to simplify the task of finding common ancestors that lived long ago.
That is because the entire human genome contains more than 20, genes, and comparing the differences among so many genes for distant relatives is problematic, even with today’s largest and fastest supercomputers. But mitochondria — the tiny organelles that serve as energy factories inside all human cells — have their own genome. Besides containing 37 genes that rarely change, they contain a “hypervariable” region, which changes fast enough to provide a molecular clock calibrated to times comparable to the age of modern humanity.
Because each person’s mitochondrial genome is inherited from his or her mother, all mitochondrial lineages are maternal. To infer mtEve’s age, scientists must convert the measures of relatedness between random blood donors into a measure of time.